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Potatoes// Various aspects of its benefits by starting potato cultivation


Potato is one of the most important food crops, Solanum tuberosum, clan solanaceae. Potatoes are probably the local crop in America. During pre-Columbian times, its cultivation spread widely among the indigenous peoples of America. It was the main food for them. Its history is difficult to know, because the early writers used 'potato' names for sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and other non-related plants. The Spanish explorers brought it from Peru in the 16th century in Spain, from where it spread throughout northern and eastern Europe. European settlers probably brought it to North America in the year 1600; Thus, like the tomato, it is established as a remedial foodflow in the Western Hemisphere. Potato as a major crop was first adopted in the British Isles. In Ireland it became the main foodstuff in the eighteenth century, and for this reason it was commonly called Irish potato to separate from the sweet potato. In the twenty-first century of the history, potatoes were important in Europe, especially in Germany, where it kept the country alive during World War II. High stomach potato is a main food of the West today, as well as a source of starch, flour, alcohol, dextrin and gooseberry (mainly in Europe). It is best grown in cold and humid climate; In the United States, especially in Maine and Idaho. Germany's largest potato producing countries are Germany, Russia, Holland and Poland.

When the potato cultivation started in the Indian subcontinent, it is not properly known. It is believed that in the beginning of the seventeenth century Portuguese sailors brought the first potato in India. The first record of potato cultivation in India is found in a number of The Gardening Monthly Magazine published in England in 1847. Initially potato was cultivated in the surrounding areas of Calcutta, where potato cultivation was introduced in Cherrapunji. While Warren Hastings was Governor (1772-1785), his initiative spread potato cultivation in many provinces, including Bombay. Potatoes are an herbaceous, yearly crop; Generally two to three eye-shaped ears are propagated by planting plants. The seeds of the same species are not found in the same species of seed. The stems are straight or sebaceous, the lacquers, the orbital or the branchless. Depending on the species, the stems are round or angular, foamy or debris, green or red, purple.

The fruit is round, brown-green or purple, with kidney shaped seeds, usually 12 to 18 mm in diameter. On the basis of variety, soil, weather and temperature and light day, the size, shape and color of the rings vary greatly. The bulb of popular varieties is usually round, oval or oblong. Nutritious tuber is a good source of starch and starch and is a good source of proteins, vitamins 'C' and 'B', potassium, phosphorus and iron. Most minerals and proteins are concentrated in a thin layer below the skin and the skin itself is the source of food foil.

There are hundreds of varieties of potato cultivation in the world. These differences are externally, the shape of the ear, the size and the color, the maturity time, the cooking and marketing characteristics, yield and the prevention of disease and insect-spider resistance. A suitable one area may not be suitable for other areas. The varieties of potato cultivated in Bangladesh can be mainly divided into two classes, local and high yielding (Uffashi). The alleged local varieties are not entirely local. In the long run, they were brought to this part of the subcontinent, and due to gradual degradation due to the absence of development efforts, they became subservient. Despite being subsistent, some local varieties are still cultivated for different flavors.

Around 27 varieties of native varieties of potato are cultivated in different parts of the country. They have a localized name According to the statistics, in 2004-05, cultivating local varieties of about 1,83,446 acres of land was produced and 5,99,518 m tons of potato was produced. Known local varieties are (a) Shilbaliati - mainly cultivated in Rangpur. Bulb rectangular, reddish Every ear weighs about 30 grams. (B) Drabhal - mainly cultivated in Bogra, the bulb is round, reddish, each weighing about 55 grams. This species is also known as Lalmadya or Bograi. (C) Lalappakari- Extensively cultivated in Dinajpur, Bogra and Sirajganj districts, bulbs of red are round, round, each weighs about 30 grams. (D) Dohazari - mainly cultivated in Chittagong area, round and fakes, each weighing around 25 grams Among other ethnic species, Zaubalati and Surja Mukhi are notable.

In the last few decades, dozens of high yielding potatoes were brought to Bangladesh and before experiments were made for general cultivation, they were experimentally examined in the local environment. Then many varieties were released for cultivation. Considering the fair value of the cultivation of varieties and other features, about 36 Uphasi varieties have been released in the country for cultivation. Of course, Bangladesh Agricultural Development Corporation (BADC) imports approximately 200 m tons of potatoes every year to distribute among the farmers. Bangladesh Agriculture Research Institute (BARI) has set up a farm in Debiganj, Panchagarh for the production of Uphasi variety seeds. Among the high yielding popular varieties, the following species are notable (a) Cardinal- Rectangular, reddish bulb, shallow eyes, skin smooth The species has been brought from Holland. The yield capacity is 20-30 m tons per hectare. (B) Another species of Holland, rectangular from oval, yellow bulb in feces, skin blisters and eyes shallow. It has the potential for moderate disease resistance. Hectare yields 25-30 m tons. (C) Kufri syndery- tubers are reddish, round, eyes deep, and leathery. Caste was brought from India; Less sensitive to disease. But now the cultivation of the species has decreased. Among other notable other prominent varieties are Patronis, Mulata, Hira, Morin, Orgo, Islesa, Granula, Felsina, Raja, Dura, Estrichs etc.

Since its inception in 1977, BARI's Kandal Crops Research Center has collected many new varieties of potatoes from the International Potato Research Center, Peru and other sources. They are being tested at the country's level to determine whether any of them are suitable for cultivation in Bangladesh. The center has already made an important contribution to the cultivation of some high yielding potato varieties. Potato production is possible in 42,55,863 m tons by cultivating high yielding potatoes in 6,222,828 acres of land in 2004-05.

Cultivation In winter, potatoes are widely cultivated in all the districts of Bangladesh. Suitable for planting well-applied sunbed sun with adequate moisture on the soil. The appropriate time is November's first party. In some parts of the northeast, the farmers planted potatoes in October to harvest crops early in October. In fact, the whole of the planted potatoes are planted in hand. Farmers determine the distance between seeds and side by side depending on soil quality and potato varieties. Row distance is usually 45 to 60 cm The typical depth of planting depends on the temperature of the soil and moisture, the next possible time of planting, and later on the type of field management. If the plantation is shallow, then only about 5 cm, then the soil is gradually to be raised above the rows. To protect sunlight and insects from diseases, it is ensured to cover the growing tubers well with soil. To protect the humidity of the soil and increase the growth of weeds, it is often mulching with the husk and hay on the row.
Applying balanced fertilizers and irrigation is often necessary for the growth of the tree and the higher yield of the ear. The quantity and degree of fertilizer application and distribution of irrigations are determined by the quality of the soil and the prevailing weather conditions. For satisfactory production of the ear, we have to follow other agronomical services, including plant preservation and weed cleaning and insect diseases.

When the production of potatoes is mature and the bulb is fully formed, the leaves gradually turn yellow and later brown, and finally die. It is better to lift crops after the symptoms are reported in the field. Most varieties of crops are grown in February-March this year. Using bullet or other tools in Bangladesh, the bulb is usually collected.

Potatoes are among the world's most important grains in the first place of raw produce. It is grown in almost all countries of the world. Potato main food in many countries of the world, including Europe, America and Canada. About 90% of the world's potato crop is grown in Europe. In the last 2-3 years, the production of potato varieties has increased in Bangladesh due to the cultivation of high yielding varieties. The environment required for production is excellent, but due to lack of expected marketing, farmers are generally not interested in producing more potatoes. The smallest part of the total production is exported, while the large quantity of seeds is still imported.

In 2005-06, the total production of potatoes in the country was 41,61,000 m tons. Various news reports have shown that the production of potato bumper in the country in 2007-08. According to reliable sources, the total production is about 82 million m tons. Most marginal farmers save potato, especially local varieties at home, in a domestic manner. This leads to widespread damage due to the removal of water, pests and diseases. The country has 234 containers with an area of ​​22,00,000 m tons. The rest of the potatoes produced are preserved in the homestead of their own farm or farmer in the domestic way.

Seed production of potatoes is cultivated in about 8,06,294 acres of Bangladesh. This requires around 3,50,000 m tons of potato potatoes. Most of the seeds used are not high quality. Farmers generally use their potatoes as potato seeds. The next season is low yield.

Generally, two varieties of potatoes are imported by the government, called a foundation or molecule and the other certified seed. Bangladesh Agricultural Development Corporation distributes certified seeds produced from the imported bases to the farmers of their own farm or on contract basis farmers. Directly imported seeds are also sold to the farmers through local BADC office. To make the yield of high yielding seeds among the farmers, the BARI now produces breeding seeds on its own Debi Ganj farm and is supplying to different non-government organizations including BADC.

Use Potato is mainly used in Bangladesh, although it is contributing more than 90% of main food and strawberries to many countries in the world. In Europe every year, millions of tons of potatoes are processed to produce starch, alcohol, potato meals, flour, dextrose and other materials. Potato chips, dehydrated mashed potatoes, French fries and canned potatoes are available through processing. In the Netherlands, Ireland, Germany and other countries, large quantities of potatoes are produced, especially for the production of alcohol, starch, potato flour or flour and fodder. More potatoes are used as food to the European countries than the United States and Canada. In Asian countries, gram flour is used more than potato as a national food diet.

Although the main use of potatoes in Bangladesh is vegetables with meat, meat and eggs, there is a great diversity in adoption of potatoes. The most important food items made from potatoes are: Siddhi potato, Fried potato, Chukki potato, Bakur potato, Potato chips, Aloo vegetables, Potato singers, Potato chips, French fries etc. Recently, bakery and fast food shops in the country started preparing delicious meals with potatoes.

The harmful insects of potatoes are attacked by many pests, mites and nematodes, and in favorable conditions, they can cause severe damage to the field crops. Among the most harmful insects are cutworm, sperm, leaf hopper, potato tuber moth, jabapoka, beetle.

At night on potato crop, Agatotus ypsilon cut the stems and leaves on the right surface of the soil. C-shaped larvae hide under the soil during the day. Adult moths are often seen flying on the ground. Field Cricket, Brachytrypes portentosus, as well as Katuipokara damages. They cut the root or root of the seedlings. Different types of leafy leaf potatoes attack the trees. The most serious of these are Empoasca devastans (Cicadellidae, Homoptera). Both the adult insects and nymphs dry the leaf juice at one time and the leaves curl dry. 'Hyper-burn' can be caused by a massive attack. These insects infect the virus as well. Zubpaka Myzus persicae and Apis gossypii (Aphididae, Homoptera) Probably the most serious of potatoes. Both aged and immature insects consume juice from the leaves, so the leaves fall downwards. Their favorable environments have increased in large numbers. In addition to food loss, Jabokoka potato virus is known to spread diseases which can severely damage the production.
Another deadly pest of potato potato moth or caterpillar, Phthorimaea operculella (Gelechiidae, Lepidoptera) Caterpillars cut the leaves and stems and later attacked the potato. If the potato is kept unprotected, their attack on the warehouse is at a critical level. At the time of attack 80 percent of the potatoes may be damaged. Among the native varieties, red pakri or Bogra potato is easily attacked by moths.

Diseases of potato are attacked by various diseases, which are classified according to pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, fungal, and nematodes infections. Some diseases are also observed due to environmental factors or physiological deficiencies. Mild mosaics, rogos mosaics and papules are important among viral diseases. The symptoms of mosaic diseases include the stain marks of different colors and shapes, necrosis (black or mating in parts) and leaf curly.

Among the most notable bacterial diseases of potato in the country are Blackleg, Bacterial Wilt and Disease. Blackwood is by Erwinia atroseptica, which attacks growing plants and warehouses; This type of name is given in the beginning of the stem of the stem and it becomes black.

Brown rotten disease is by ralstonia solanacearum; The leaves fall down, holding the bronze color and getting stuck and die. Apart from this Sturptomyces scabies cause potato disease and damage to potato properties.

The important fungal diseases of potato are diseases like late blight, early blight, black scurf and kandapcha. Negatives among potato diseases are the most serious and epidemic diseases. Parasitic Fungus causes the disease at Phytopthora infestans. The primary symptoms of the disease are in any part of the tree, mainly on the leaf black to black spots.

Anemia is caused by Alternaria solani, another deadly disease of potato in Bangladesh. The black spots appear on the page with dark brown. Stains are usually different shapes, in many cases, a number of stains are assembled, causing large leaves to glow. Black scurf disease is usually not very serious, but occasionally significant damage. This disease is caused by the attack of Rhizoctonia solanij and in this, black spots are seen from a very clear brown brown on the pot.

The best way to reduce the incidence of disease or reduce the incidence of potato is to use disease-free seed. Before planting, the seed must be thoroughly tested and the seeds need to be cleaned after sinking in the recommended chemicals.
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The national food of different countries of the world #NPD


We know, based on the idea that Hamburger is called American food. Similarly, there are very few national foods in the world. Below are some of the countries and their national food.

England: Roast of beef and pudding of Yorkshire-
It's a Sunday lunch and national symbol. Yorkshire or Puding was usually served as a filer before the main menu. At present, beef and pudding are eaten together, as well as lavish potato roast, vegetables and sajina sauce are eaten.

France: Pot-au-Fou
Traditionally it is a winter meal. It is boiled throughout the season, pot-au-phee is a hot food through which the vegetables, spicy vegetables are out.

Spain: Pavela-
Peylaa recipes have come from different types of marine food, meat, sausage, vegetables and various types of seasoning. But now the most popular food is the marine food pajela.

Germany: Southbrighten-
Germany's Pot Roast-Saurbraten is considered one of the national foods of this country. Generally it is made of horse meat, which has been associated with wine, vinegar, spices, medicines and seasonings for 10 days. It is usually served with boiled potatoes and red cabbage.

Brazil: Feyzada-
The winner originally originated from Portugal. It is primarily the beef and pork meat with boiled peas.

Chile: Pastel de Chocal
These meals are also prepared in Argentina, Bolivia and Peru. It is a layer pie, which is baked in oven and made in a deep container, made with cut beef, chicken, olive oil and hard boiled eggs and topped with fresh corn and mint leaves above all.

Russia: Pelmany-
It's like a pudding. This is the traditional food of Eastern Europe, which is made from meat ki khaora. Same food is available in Turkey, Tibet and Korea by adding a slightly different amount of food to similar foods.

China: Packing Post-
Raj duck has been created a few hundred years ago. It is a popular food that is coming from Beijing and it is considered as the national food of China. Packing is the taste of the taste of the fun and the spinning leather.

After all, it can be said that there are some national food in all the country, such as our favorite food of Bangalis and the national food ration. Source: Indian Express
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The foods that hold youth// Tips For Health.

We do not follow much to maintain youth. But there are some foods that you will be playing in the rules of youth.

Find out some of these foods:
Egg: Eggs can be cooked or fried, all the eggs are a very useful diet for health. Eggs contain a lot of vitamin B5 and B6, which helps in hormonal functioning and helps in reducing stress. Put an egg on a daily breakfast. This will give your body strength and increase sexual power.

Honey: There are many benefits of honey. In the morning, after eating the honey with the tongue in empty stomach, the cuff is removed, the stomach is cleansed, the body is exposed to the contaminated substances, the book opens, the stomach becomes normal, the brain receives energy, the energy comes in normal heat, the strength increases, the removal of urinary stones By doing, urine is normal, gas emits and increases appetite. Honey is also beneficial for paralysis. Honey extract thousands of flowers and grains. There is a great deal of doubt about whether all the researchers from the world can gather together to create an essay.

Milk: The role of milk is unmatched by the increase in physical strength and youth. Especially the goat milk plays an extraordinary role in increasing the physical strength of the male. The secret of this is that milk can be removed by drying the dryness of the body and rapidly replacing it with digestion, producing sperm, producing red color, removes unnecessary pollutants of the body, and strengthens the brain.

Nuts and seeds: Pumpkin seeds, sunflower seeds, Chinese nuts, cashew nuts, pistachios etc. have the necessary monocycurred fat for the body and they produce beneficial cholesterol in the body. This cholesterol is very important for sex hormones to function properly. So try to eat nuts a little bit every day. It will be good for your physical health.

Tea without sugar: If you drink tea without milk and sugar every day, lots of antioxidants are available in the body. Activates tea brains, increases blood flow and helps in improving memory. Green Tea or color without sugar for at least three to five cups of milk daily is good for physical health and body weight decreases slightly.

Colorful Fruit: If you want to maintain physical health, keep colorful fruits on the food list every day. Grapes, bananas, orange lemons, watermelons, pitch etc. are very beneficial for the increase of sex capacity. According to the medical team study of the University of Texas, a person's quality of sperm is improved if he has at least 200 milligrams of Vitamin C in his daily diet list. According to A & M University of Texas, watermelon increases the body's stimulus. They compare vomagra with watermelon medicines.

Garlic: It cured the disease. There are many benefits of garlic. Garlic starts well, menses start, normalizes urine, emits gas from the stomach, creates physical ability among dull people, increases semen, darkens semen of warmth, helps in stomach pain, and helps in spreading asthma and shiver diseases. Do it. However, the use of garlic for pregnant women is harmful. This juice is also called as Abe Hayat.

Oily fish: Omega 3 fatty acids that are oily fish are extremely beneficial for healthy body life. Marine fish also have plenty of omega 3 fatty acids. Omega 3 fatty acids DHA O EPA increases dopamine in the body and stimulates brain stimulation. Playing oily and marine fish increases the blood circulation of the body and the growth hormones are dissolved. As a result, physical health is good and capacity increases.

Palanpur and other vegetables: Palang sha has a lot of magnesium Magnesium increases blood circulation in the body. According to Japanese researchers, physical stimuli increases as the blood flow to the body increases. Sesame seeds and other different kinds of vegetables, broccoli, lettuce, cauliflower, cabbage, and other antioxidants, including Vitamin B These are some of the most essential components for healthy physical life.
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